Jigjiga City is the capital and seat of the Somali Regional State and Fafan Zone. Thus, in addition to the city Administration sectoral offices and local area administration, the city is a seat for all Regional Bureaus and Governmental and Non-governmental administrations at the regional level.  In relative terms, it is located at about 105km (road distance) east of Harar, on the Jigjiga–Harar-Dire Dawa /AA main highway; and about 70 km west of Tog-Wuchale. The city is also located about 160km and 300km road distance from Hargeisa and Berbera port, respectively. In absolute terms, it is located at an approximate geographical coordinate of 9º20'N latitude, and 42º56’E longitudes.

The name Jigjiga, the area was locally known as La'a which in the Somali language means “an attractive view”. The origin of the word Jigjiga is some it is said to have originated from assort of “jig-jig” sounds that were heard as the people dug water wells.

The city has a total built-up area of about 7,223ha. According to the existing classification which is mainly based on population size, it has 20 kebele administration units. The town has somewhat a compact shape with slight east-west stretches following the main outlet routes from Harar/Addis Ababa to Kebribeyah and/or Togochale.

Jigjiga city will lead the National and Regional Urban Growth in the coming decade as a major trade and service center. Thus, by understanding the need to put in place a framework that will ensure that the inevitable urban growth and change that will occur in the coming ten years will strengthen the economy, enhance the quality of life and livability, and positively affect the lives of the existing and upcoming generation. This plan identifies and pinpoints a vision of what Jigjiga should become by 2031 and proposes sound recommendations, implementation mechanisms, and actions that can be carried out in a rigorous implementation program to make the vision reality.

Moreover, the city has a plan to restructure the administration into four sub-cities namely Karamarda, Dudahidi, Garab’asse, and Qordere sub-cities by sub-dividing the urban kebeles to each sub-city. In karamarda Sub-city is subdivided to the following kebeles 01,02,03,08,09,13,14 and 20, while in Dudahidi sub-city 06,07, 11, 12,17 and 18 are subdivided under the sub-city. Garab'asse sub-city 04 and 15 kebeles are under garab'asse sub-city and Qordere sub-city 05,10,16 and 19 are sub divided under the sub-city.